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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/83695


    Title: TPS精益生產之應用研究—以K公司為例
    Authors: 孔見超;Kung, Chien-Chao
    Contributors: 高階主管企管碩士班
    Keywords: 精實生產;Lean production;Toyota Production System;Just In Time
    Date: 2020-06-24
    Issue Date: 2020-09-02 16:55:50 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 精益(實)生產起源於豐田生產系統(Toyota Production System, TPS),在歷經石油危機及日圓升值,豐田汽車依舊能夠持續60年連續獲利,展現TPS的卓越性。精實生產是以徹底排除企業內部所有一切的浪費,進行各種改善,以提高生產力、降低成本、提升品質的生產系統,許多國內外企業導入精實生產的成功案例證明,精實生產它是可滿足顧客少量多樣的需求趨勢並且提高企業獲利及競爭優勢的生產方式。豐田生產方式TPS的發展主要歸功於豐田佐吉、豐田喜一郎和大野耐一為主要靈魂人物。
    豐田佐吉發明了自動紡織機,於1924年更進一步完成了換梭式「G型自動織布機」,這一發明開啟了自動紡織業的大門及豐田汽車的敲門磚,實現了一名工人同時看管多台機器的工作方式(人機分離:人非機器的看守者),並可使設備在發生故障時自動報警及停機,這就是TPS「自働化」的前身。
    豐田喜一郎(Kiichiro Toyota)於20世紀1930年代,赴美學習福特Ford公司的生產製造系統,把大量生產的方法,在日本的小規模汽車生產中加以改造應用,提出了在生產線的各個工序中,只在需要時,上一個工序才進行生產,從而奠定了JIT生產的基礎。JIT 就是「只在有需要的時候,生產需要數量的產品」。
    大野耐一(Taiichi Ohno)在豐田英二領導時期,把豐田及時生產方式形成完整框架及落地實施。於20世紀1950年代,美國的超級市場給了豐田很大的啟發,因而發明了拉動式(Pull)生產系統,並開發了一系列工具來實現他的生產模式,最著名的工具就是「看板: Kanban」及現地觀察七大浪費的消除(大野耐一圈)。而「看板」則是為了實現 JIT 所誕生的管理與改善工具,七大浪費的消除便是精實管理的核心。
    精實生產此一名詞首見於 1990 年出版「The Machine that Changed the World」一書。作者 Roos, D., Jones, D. T.和 Womack, J. P.是精實生產的主要倡導者,它利用豐田生產體系為主幹,衍生發展出精實的相關理論和做法。研究豐田式管理多年的詹姆斯.沃馬克(James P. Womack)及丹尼爾.瓊斯( Daniel T. Jones)表示:「善用精實系統思考,就可以用更少的資源、更少的設備、更少的時間空間,使產出接近顧客所需要。」為了闡述及推廣精實生產,更於2003年出版了Lean Thinking禪述價值的創造,需從顧客的觀點出發,在所有產生加值的活動中,排除浪費。
    為協助企業引進豐田如何消除浪費、創造獲利的有效方法,提出價值流圖解分析法(Value Stream Mapping)的理論,並將之歸納為精實思考的五大原則: (1)定義價值(Specify Value)(2)鑑別價值流 (Identify Value Stream)(3)暢流(Flow)(4)後拉式生產(Pull)(5)盡善盡美(Perfection)
    此五大原則讓精實管理有系統的理解及思考,有步驟的執行精實改善,本論文便依循五大原則作探討。融合東西方對TPS禪述,取其優點,使精實改善能更順利地推行。一般導入精實生產的公司,對執行成效部分通常以品質、成本、交期(Quality, Cost, Delivery, QCD)作為績效指標。然而除QCD外,更重要的是企業持續改善及學習的能力,執行成效必須以整體系統觀點去評估,才可以引導正確的改善方向,並擬訂長期持續改善計畫的具體作法。;Lean production was originated from the Toyota Production System (TPS). Lean production is regarded as a production system to eliminate all the waste within the enterprise, and conduct a variety of improvements for increasing productivity, reducing costs, and enhancing the quality. Many success cases from domestic and foreign enterprises have proved that lean production can satisfy customers. It can also enhance corporate profits and competitive advantage of production.
    Toyota Production System (TPS), which is based on the philosophy of the complete elimination of all waste in pursuit of the most efficient methods, has roots tracing back to Sakichi Toyoda′s automatic loom.The automatic loom invented by Sakichi Toyoda not only automated work that used to be performed manually, but also built the capability to make judgments into the machine itself. By eliminating both defective products and the associated wasteful practices, Sakichi succeeded in rapidly improving both productivity and work efficiency that track back as Jidoka. TPS has evolved through many years of trial and error to improve efficiency based on the Just-in-Time concept. Kiichiro Toyoda realize his belief that "the ideal conditions for making things are created when machines, facilities, and people work together to add value without generating any waste." He conceived methodologies and techniques for eliminating waste between operations, between both lines and processes. The result was the JIT.Just-in-Time: Making only "what is needed, when it is needed, and in the amount needed"
    Lean thinking through TPS practices by worldwide factory and producing quality products efficiently through the complete elimination of waste, inconsistencies, and unreasonable requirements on the production line. The statement leads to the five principles of lean thinking: Value, Value Stream, Flow, Pull and Perfection.To create a value stream, describe what happens to a product at each step in its production, from design to order to raw material to delivery.
    The Lean Production System got three basic aims that are consistent with these values and objectives: The three basic aims as follows:
    1. Reduce production cost through the elimination of waste and maximize profit
    2. Develop flexible production system based on customer demand.
    3. Develop teammember potential based on mutual trust and respect.
    Company with implementing lean production adopted quality, cost, and delivery as performance indicators for evaluating effectiveness. In addition of QCD, the much more important factor is building the capability of continuous improving and learning for the corporate. Evaluating effectiveness with systematic perspective can conduct right direction and make specific practices for long-term improving plan continuously.
    Appears in Collections:[高階主管企管(EMBA)碩士班] 博碩士論文

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