New institutionalism in social science has three main different research orientations, namely, historical institutionalism, rational choice institutionalism, and sociological institutionalism. The study analyzes Hakka language policy and teaching development from the perspective of historical institutionalism in new institutionalism. The study, including interviews with Hakka administrative staff, scholars, experts, teachers, and non-profit organizations staff, and simultaneously analyzes the intrinsic logical dimension and external historical dimension to show the transitional justice of Hakka consciousness.
It shows that Hakka policy and teaching practice system are deeply influenced by the authority and coerciveness of the political system by comparing the policy direction of three presidents. They need to be guaranteed by law to balance the asymmetrical relationship of political power. From the perspective of different historical institutionalism, Hakka policy and educational practice, presented in different historical development stages, are limited by the influence of the educational system and the factors of government regulations restrictions. It relies on the consensus of local teaching staff, and needs the cooperation between Hakka and Minnan ethnic groups to develop their multiculturalism. The proper way of Hakka language policy and teaching practice is to promote Hakka official language policy and teaching.
This research suggests that Hakka courses should be made by required courses according to the provisions of Development of National Languages Act and affect the structure of the curricula and school curriculum. It is recommended that the education authority needs to arrange and plan for the flexible courses of each school in advance. The government needs to engage in strategy arrangements and teaching adjustments in Hakka in response to the physical and mental development of elementary and high school students. Furthermore, it suggests to cultivate and hire Hakka teachers by projects to solve the problem of the lacking of Hakka teachers in primary and high schools,.
Keywords: Hakka policy, Hakka teaching development, Historical institutionalism,
Hakka Basic Act, Development of National Languages Act