在西方，關於女同性戀的文學書寫可以追溯至古希臘時代，從女詩人莎弗（Sapho）藉由詩歌來表達女性之間的愛情開始。隨著歷史發展，女性之間的戀情在社會中一直被視為禁忌，同時卻也是時常被書寫的主題。然而在某些男性作家帶有偏見的筆下，他們所描寫的內容與二十世紀初在巴黎活躍的女同性戀作家們的真實經驗截然不同。因此，「女同性戀文學」（littérature lesbienne）的定義仍然有待釐清。在本文中，我們首先將梳理關於女同性戀的文學書寫在歷史中的演進，進而透過七、八零年代的女性主義學者的辯證中試著定義女同性戀文學。同時也將引用德勒茲和瓜達里所提出的少數文學（littérature mineure）概念，試著分析女同性戀文學作為少數文學的革命性及政治性。本文將特別著重在二十世紀初巴黎著名的文學沙龍主人－娜塔莉‧巴尼（Natalie Barney, 1876-1972）的文學生涯與書寫。約莫1970年開始，許多女性主義學者開始注意到巴尼及其沙龍的前衛性。除了將她作為女性書寫以及性別研究的對象，更賦予她「女同性戀教主」 （lesbian pope）的稱號。在進入巴尼的介紹之前，我們首先將回顧二十世紀初巴黎的社會背景及沙龍文化的歷史，藉此了解巴尼沙龍的時代背景。透過分析巴尼書寫及思想中與第三波女性主義運動相呼應的觀點，我們將了解她何以在女性主義研究中被視為先驅。最後，我們將透過今日的角度去回顧生成女同性戀文學在文化與社會層面上的條件，以及其在今日的可能性。 ;The history of literature about lesbianism could be retraced to Antiquity, when Sappho expressed the love between women in her poetries. If lesbianism has always appeared as a taboo in the society over time, it is also a subject enthusiastically recognized in literature. Love between women is a subject often written by male authors, but with bias, which is far from the real life of the lesbian authors in Paris in the early Twentieth century. It results an ambiguity in what people called “lesbian literature” and its definition is still unclear. In this thesis, we will first of all revisit the history of literature about lesbianism and its evolution, and then question the term “lesbian literature”, by using the arguments of feminists in the 70’s and 80’s. We will also use the theory of minor literature of Deleuze and Guattari to analyze the revolutionary role and political functions of lesbian literature. The writing and the literary life of Natalie Barney (1876-1972), a famous salonist in the early of twentieth century in Paris, will be the major subject of this thesis. Around the 70’s, some feminists began to notice the avant-garde role of Barney and her salon. She was suddenly not only studied in the field of women’s writing and the gender study, but also celebrated as a lesbian pope. Before presenting Barney, it will be necessary to recall and analyze the circumstances of her life in Paris as well as the history of literary salon to contextualize her own activities. By analyzing the writing and the ideas of Barney which resonate with the third wave of the feminist movement, we will be able to understand her role as a pioneer in the feminist studies. Finally, questioning the social and cultural conditions of the creation of lesbian works leads us to think about the possibility of lesbian literature today.