汽車工業長期以來不論在GDP或支撐就業人口甚至民間消費上一直扮演著極為重要的角色，90年代美國汽車產業因受到日本與歐洲汽車工業的興起其競爭力被受關注，於是政府發動聯合產業共同聯合投資計畫-PNGV (the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles)。然則，在同一時期內並非僅有美國發展計畫開發新一代汽車－如油電混合汽車或全電動車等，歐洲(Framework Programmes)日本( New Sunshine Project)也相繼投入參與新一代汽車競爭大賽；雖然，美國政府在計畫經費的支出遠超國任何其他國家，但以美國三大車廠出產的汽車卻不見其在燃油效率上改善了多少。本論文透過美國與歐洲日本汽車聯合產業計畫的比較進而評估美國聯合廠商投資行為之效果。This research assesses the effectiveness of public-private cooperation, the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program in improving fuel efficiency of automobile industry. The period examined is the decade of the 1990s, a period when Japanese and European automobile industry was booming and U.S. industrial competitiveness was a significant national concern. Laws enabled new forms of industrial cooperation such as R&D partnerships. The Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, while in a class of its own for trying to develop supercars such as HEV, BPEV and FCEV, is confronted by numerous similar programs in Japanese and European. By no means is the PNGV the one answer to the new generation of vehicle puzzle. Programs such as Framework Programmes(EU) and New Sunshine Project(Japan) provide insight to where the United States stands in the competition, and possibilities for the program’s future. Although the United States government invest more money than any other countries, there is no evidence presented in the product from “THREE BIG”. Undoubtedly, it is a success in the sense that both US government and automakers are pleased. But how has it served the public? Has it be the best investment of government R&D funds and has it achieve the goal?