研究期間：10108~10207;The goal of the study is to examine methodological issues regarding to attitudinal items and derived variables in international large-scale assessment databases. The study will further utilize quantitative methods on investigating the properties of the student attitudinal items and derived variables related to mathematics and science learning via using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2007 (TIMSS 2007). The main population in the study is the eighth grade students in Taiwan as well as other high-achieving East Asian countries (i.e., Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, and Singapore). The results of the study can provide more implicit and valid psychometric evidence of the items and derived variable related to attitudes towards learning mathematics and science in a given situation (e.g., data only from a country). Additionally, the study enlightens the use of derived variables with more appropriate statistical properties for subsequent analyses.