|Abstract: ||近年來研究學者與教育者越來越重視科學解釋，許多研究指出學生透過建構科學解釋不僅可以促進他們對於科學概念的深層理解，而且可以培養探究能力以及改善他們對於學習科學的觀點。目前主要有CER (Claim-Evidence-Reasoning)和POE (Prediction-Observation-Explanation)這兩種解釋活動引導學生進行科學解釋，然而學生仍有困難使用文字清楚地說明他們的科學解釋。而且，這兩種解釋活動對於學生的學習成就、學習科學的概念和學習科學的方法有什麼程度上的影響仍不清楚。因此，本研究提出一個以解釋為基礎的探究學習環境，整合解釋活動、動畫模擬以及多媒體繪圖工具支援學生使用語文與繪圖方式去建構科學解釋。|
實驗結果顯示繪圖方式對於教育者和研究學者在科學教育上具有獨特的益處，而且根據學生繪圖科學解釋發現有六種解釋模式，包含無關型、迷思型、參照型、比較型、類推型和分析型。低階與高階解釋模式相互比較，結果發現CER和POE活動可能會導致那些使用低階解釋模式的學生使用更多的表層的策略學習科學。對於CER和POE兩種活動皆能改善學生的學習成就、學習科學的興趣、以記憶方式和為了考試而學習科學的概念、深層學習動機和深層策略。兩種活動相互比較，結果發現學生在CER活動中傾向使用高階解釋模式，然而學生在POE活動中傾向使用低階解釋模式。而且相較於POE活動，CER活動可能無法有效地提升學生以理解的概念學習科學；相較於CER活動，POE活動可能可以提升學生使用應用的觀點去學習科學。; Scientific explanation has gained much attention from researchers and educators in science education in recent years. Numerous studies have argued that, by constructing scientific explanations, students cannot only obtain a deep understanding of science concepts, but can also foster the ability to make science inquiries and refine their conceptions of learning science. The claim-evidence-reasoning (CER) and prediction-observation-explanation (POE) inquiry activities are two salient activities developed to guide students to construct scientific explanations. However, students still tend to have difficulty articulating their scientific explanations with verbal representations. In addition, to what extent the two explanatory activities may impact students' learning achievement, conceptions of and approaches to learning science is still unclear. Hence, this study proposes an explanation-based inquiry learning environment integrating animated simulation and multimedia drawing tools to facilitate students' articulation of their explanations with the support of both verbal and nonverbal representations.
Two empirical studies were conducted to investigate the extent of the environment's impact on students' scientific explanations. In addition to discussing the beneficial effects of drawing on students' scientific explanations, the impacts of the CER activity with drawings and the POE activity with drawings on students' learning achievement, learning interest and confidence, conceptions of and approaches to learning science, and explanation patterns were investigated. This research further investigated the differences between 1) the CER and POE activities with drawings, and 2) low- and high-level explanation patterns in terms of students' scientific explanations, learning achievement, conceptions of and approaches to learning science.
The results show the prominent benefits of drawing in science education for educators and researchers. Moreover, both the CER and POE activities with drawings improved the students' learning achievement and learning interest, their conceptions of memorizing and testing, and their deep motivation and deep strategies. The study further found that different students' explanation patterns influenced their learning achievement, conceptions of and approaches to learning science. Also, the results of investigating the different effects of the CER and POE activities with drawings indicate that the CER group tended to use high-level explanation pattern, while the POE group tended to use low-level explanation pattern. Moreover, compared to the POE activity with drawings, the CER activity with drawings may not effectively enhance students' conception of understanding to learn science. Compared to the CER activity with drawings, the POE activity with drawings may enhance students' use of the conception of applying to learn science. The implications of these results for supporting scientific explanation learning in classrooms are also discussed.