|Abstract: ||寫作能力對於學生的學習扮演著重要的角色，但學生在學校的寫作表現卻往往低於該年級所應擁有的能力水準。此外，學生在寫作課中普遍存在著寫作阻塞(writing block)之現象，容易沒有想法而不知道要寫些什麼。研究指出廣泛閱讀對於學生的寫作有所幫助，而透過自由寫的方式可以解決學生寫作上想法阻塞的問題。因此，本研究提出一個主題式閱讀與自由寫結合的寫作模式，稱之為「何艾模式(He-Elbow model)」，來促進學生想法產出，進而提升學生的寫作能力與態度。此外，此何艾寫作模式被實作在二個不同機制的數位寫作環境中去探討其對於學生寫作表現上之效益，並透過二個實證實驗來檢視。在實驗一中，建立了一個網路式的寫作系統(Web-based He-Elbow Writing System)，主要用來探討此系統對於學生在寫作上的影響。隨後，根據實驗一中學生的反應與結果，建立了遊戲式的寫作系統(Game-based He-Elbow Writing System)，並於實驗二中探討不同能力的學生對於此系統的不同表現與反應。|
實驗一的研究結果顯示出，學生表現出較正向的寫作態度，並對於網路式的寫作系統來幫助他們進行寫作給予正面的評價。更重要地，此系統可以提升學生的寫作表現，包括寫作品質、詞彙使用量、想法產出等面向。另一方面，從實驗二的研究結果指出，遊戲式寫作系統對於學生的寫作也有著正面的影響，但學生的先備寫作能力差異造成不同的影響效果。具體而言，高能力學生在寫作測驗表現上仍都相對地獲得較高的成績，但低能力學生在句子長度與造句能力上進步較為突出，較為受益。此外，學生普遍對於此遊戲式寫作系統都給予正向的感受回饋，但低能力學生似乎在使用意願向度上仍顯低落。因此，本研究依據研究發現提出四條準則來建議改善後續數位寫作環境之設計，以期許可以發展出一套完善的數位寫作系統以滿足不同使用者之寫作需求。; Writing ability is crucial and fundamental to students' learning. However, students' writing abilities in schools are usually under their respective grade levels. Moreover, the common affliction in writing classes is that students have limited ideas to write about and get writing blocks. Regarding writing ideas, several studies indicated that reading was beneficial to improve students' writing performance. Regarding writing block, previous studies demonstrated that freewriting could reduce students' writing block. Accordingly, we proposed an integrated reading-freewriting model, i.e., He-Elbow Writing Model, which includes theme-based reading and association-stimulation freewriting methods to promote students' positive reactions to writing and improve their writing performance. The He-Elbow Writing Model was implemented in a web-based environment and a game-based environment. These two environments were chosen because the former could provide a wide range of access while the latter could enhance students' joyfulness. To this end, two empirical studies were conducted to examine how students perceived and performed in these two environments. More specifically, a Web-based He-Elbow Writing (WB-HEW) system was developed in Study One, where how the WB-HEW system affects students' writing was investigated. On the other hand, a Game-based He-Elbow Writing (GB-HEW) system was implemented in Study Two, where how students reacted to the GB-HEW system was examined.
The results from Study One suggested that students positively perceived the WB-HEW system and they showed more positive attitudes toward writing after interacting with the WB-HEW system. Due to such positive perceptions and attitudes, students' writing performance was improved, in terms of the quality of essays, the use of vocabulary and the production of writing idea. On the other hand, the findings from Study Two demonstrated that the GB-HEW system also had positive effects on student writing but such effects were associated with students' abilities. More specifically, high-ability students overall showed outstanding performance outcomes but low-ability students made more improvement in sentence making. Furthermore, students generally showed positive perceptions for GB-HEW system but low-ability students demonstrated less intention of using the GB-HEW system in writing classes. It seems that some issues of the designed writing systems still exist. Therefore, four guidelines were proposed for improving future writing environments. Furthermore, two frameworks were proposed and could be applied to provide the new knowledge of how to develop effective writing environments that can accommodate the needs of diverse students.