;Proverbs are part of folk literature. Through the spread of proverbs, we can preserve the plebeian traditional living habits and style of doing things, and reveal the important cultural capital of common people. Through words of mouth and written words, proverbs are the essence of a people's culture, reflect the culture of a society and practical experience of thought and religion, and also convey the historical footprints of our ancestors and grass-root nature of emotions.
This research studies on the proverbs about ghosts and gods spreading in Taiwan Hakka ethnic community, tries to understand its influence on morality and culture dimension of Taiwan Hakka ethnic community. And I also want to discuss how did the belief on ghosts and gods, that are accumulated through the long time and experiences, enlighten the living wisdom of ancients and cultural meaning on people’s activity, and to be delivered to the descendants.
This research is divided into five chapters. Chapter one is introduction, which explicates motives, purpose, approaches of this study, as well as review of relevant literatures. Proverbs that are the essence of people’s wisdom, reflect people’s living experiences interacted with their living environment and life philosophy comprehended through their daily experience.
Chapter two discusses the origin of culture of ghosts and gods, belief in gods in Taiwan's folk religions in Hakka society, and culture of ghosts and gods in the Hakka proverbs. Then I discuss the linkage between the folk religions and the Hakkas proverbs and how do the linkage show humanism of respecting heaven and achieve the goals of enlightenment.
Chapter three discusses the cultural meaning of ghost worship in Taiwan Hakka proverbs. The worship of the souls of the dead is the mainstream of folk beliefs in Taiwan, and ancestor worship is one important part of the worship of the souls of the dead. Since it is an extension of filial piety, by way of the internal cohesion of the Hakka community, ancestor worship is a cultural indicator of realization of filial piety.
Chapter four discusses the cultural meaning of belief in gods of Taiwan Hakkas proverbs. Hakka Ethnicity treats the Emperor of Heaven as the incarnation of the god of justice, who maintains the right and justice in the living world. By way of realizing the meaning of proverbs through the folk beliefs, we can cohere the moral sentiment of respecting ancestors, worshiping gods and reverence for ancestors.
Chapter five concludes how do the Hakka proverbs about ghosts and gods influence the people's philosophy of life and attitude towards life, indirectly, encourage convergence of ancient and modern culture, and promote the integration of diverse culture. Influenced by the concept of transmigration, most people believe there will be retributive justice for something seriously wrong, so they speak and behave carefully, dare not to do the evil things. By way of revealing the compassionate sentiments, the Hakka proverbs about ghosts and gods fufill the purpose to purify people's spirit as well as to maintain social stability and peace.
Focusing on the Hakka proverbs about ghosts and gods, this study summarize, generalize and analyze their real meaning on cultural and religious dimension. I hope that this study can contribute on academic area and education.