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|Title: ||客家祖塔之形成與發展：以湖口地區宗族為例;The Formation and Development of Hakka Lineage Mausoleums: Studying the Clans in Hukou|
|Authors: ||戴國焜;Tai,Kuo Ken|
|Keywords: ||客家;祖塔;祭祖;二次葬;儀式;Hakka;lineage mausoleum;ancestor worship;second burial;ritual|
|Issue Date: ||2014-08-11 18:23:39 (UTC+8)|
;The Hakka lineage mausoleum is a unique and integral symbol of the Taiwanese Hakka community. This type of funerary practice, which is performed by individual clans, is neither found in the Hakka homeland in Mainland China nor in other areas where major Hakka populations reside. The mausoleums are typically shaped like a tomb or a pagoda, and the Hakka people refer to these structures as da feng shui. Tens or hundreds of ancestors’ remains or bones, including those of the first immigrants to Taiwan or the head of one branch of a clan, are preserved in these mausoleums. Initiated in the early twentieth century, this practice developed rapidly after the retrocession of Taiwan and remains influential in contemporary Taiwan.
This study explored the formation and development of Hakka lineage mausoleums by analyzing the examples built by the clans in Hukou. Analyses based on field studies revealed that the formation of these mausoleums is related to Hakka cultural traits and elements such as frugality and diligence, the practice of second burials, belief in geomancy, clan organization, and ancestor worship. Moreover, the environments wherein the Hakka people settled, social change, funeral regulations, and the architectural techniques they use have greatly influenced the development of these mausoleums.
The mausoleum structures and the rituals and operations performed therein reveal Hakka attitudes toward the dead and toward the relationship between heaven and man, and that Hakka clans are patrilineal. The Hakka have amended their traditional customs to correspond with social changes. For example, in recent years, they have exhibited awareness of feminism by allowing the inclusion of deceased unmarried female relatives into the mausoleums and on the clan tablets. Thus, these mausoleums have gradually developed into sacred spaces （in addition to family temples） that play a crucial role in unifying clan members annually on Tomb Sweeping Day.
|Appears in Collections:||[客家社會文化研究所] 博碩士論文|
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