|Abstract: ||再多付購物策略是一種常用於協助智能障礙者購物的策略，但由於過度依賴受試者幣值數數的認知能力，因此限制了智能障礙者之購物表現。本研究採用跨受試者、跨情境與跨消費金額的多試探多基線設計，旨在探討二種再多付購物策略（再多付購物策略內嵌於智慧型手機購物輔助系統、傳統再多付購物策略）對四位國中中度智能障礙學生，在二種社區購物情境（超級市場與便利商店）、三種購物消費金額(NT$1-NT$100, NT$101-NT$500 和NT$501-NT$1000）下之購物付款與購物找零表現。另外，由於幣值種類的差異，本研究亦探討單一幣值和混合二種以上之幣值，對於傳統再多付購物策略在購物表現上之成效差異。此外，並使用描述性統計、視覺分析及效果量的方式，來分析這些學生，於基線期、介入期、保留期及類化期的購物表現。 |
;The heavy cognitive demands of money-counting skills potentially limit how individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) shop when they use the one-more-than technique to make purchases. This study employed a multi-probe multiple baseline design across participants, settings (convenience stores and supermarkets), and increasing prices (NT$1-NT$100, NT$101-NT$500, and NT$501-NT$1000), with and without the assistance of a Mobile Purchasing Assistance System (MPAS), to assess the effectiveness of the one-more-than technique on independent purchases (i.e., the payment and the change) for items with prices beyond the money counting capacity of four male secondary school students with moderate ID. Meanwhile, the money combinations, which included single-type currency and multiple types of currency, were included to investigate the feasibility of the one-more-than technique for local denominations in Taiwan. Finally, descriptive statistics, visual inspection, and percentage of non-overlapping data were utilized to analyze the results. Implications for practice and future studies are provided in this study.
The findings of the study are as follows:
1.Within a 2-weeks intervention each price range, the traditional one-more-than technique did not have immediate effect and maintenance effect for four participants in Taiwan required more money supporting daily living. Use of a single-type of money (i.e., paying one more hundred note) was a potential approach for the traditional one-more-than technique in Taiwan, compared with the use of multiple-types of money. All previous research regarding the one-more-than technique focused more on exploring the effective alternative treatments pertaining to the payment procedure; however, no research focused on the issue of the change. The findings demonstrated that the payment given and the change received should be considered a complete process, an integral whole, rather than two isolated components involving the approach of the traditional one-more-than technique.
2.The approach of the MPAS equipped with the one-more-than technique would be of great benefit. It would be an advantage over the use of the traditional one-more-than technique. Results demonstrated the functional relationship between the MPAS approach and independent purchases across four participants, three levels of price ranges, and two community settings. The techniques with the MPAS could effectively convert participants’ initial money counting problems into useful advantages for successfully promoting the independent purchasing skills.
3.Also noteworthy is the finding that the mobile technology facilitated participants’ portable personal ability, which did not rely heavily on the physical conditions of community sites. Furthermore, the MPAS effectively facilitated the generalization of acquired skills from trained situations to four non-trained new environments. Four participants independently maintained their newly acquired skills for at least eight weeks after the removal of the MPAS intervention.