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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/66905


    Title: 探討專家和新手對遊戲式學習進行可用性評估的觀感差異;An Investigation of the Usability of Game-based Learning: Experts vs. Novices
    Authors: 梅菘育;Mei,Song-Yu
    Contributors: 網路學習科技研究所
    Keywords: 遊戲式學習系統;尼爾森評估;使用者測試;設計準則;game-based learning system;Nielsen’s Heuristic;user testing;design guidelines
    Date: 2014-11-11
    Issue Date: 2015-03-16 15:59:03 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 近幾年來,遊戲式學習系統擁有了許多優點並且在教育環境中逐漸流行。然而,研究亦指出遊戲式學習系統的介面可用性存在一些問題,例如:遊戲式學習系統為了提高視覺效果而使用大量的遊戲元素導致遊戲介面變得更複雜,而複雜的介面則會讓使用者產生額外的負擔,進而造成使用者的負面觀感增加,因此,有必要考慮介面的可用性,以降低學習者的負面觀感。介面的可用性被廣泛地應用在系統設計中,主要之目的是滿足使用者的需求,以讓使用者操作系統。而可用性評估又分成專家評估和使用者測試,在眾多專家評估的方法中,尼爾森評估扮演了一個重要的角色,此評估方式涵蓋了較廣泛的評估面向,且能夠快速且有效地找到可用性問題,另一方面,使用者測試是一個新手的評估方式,雖不具備可用性的專業知識,亦可以經由自身經驗進行評估,因此,若能結合尼爾森評估與使用者測試進行系統評估,將可透過各自的優點來彌補相互的缺失,故能有效的找出問題,進而將系統設計的更完善。

    因此,本研究進行了兩個實驗,在實驗一中,本研究開發了一個遊戲式學習系統探討專家和新手對於可用性評估的觀感差異。其結果指出,專家和新手在G3 (圖像/情節)、G4 (音樂/聲音)、H1 (系統狀態可見性)、H7 (靈活性與使用效率)與H9(幫助用戶認識、偵錯並從錯誤中恢復)有不同的觀感,以H1為例,新手僅需要遊戲結束後給予相對應的回饋機制,而專家則在遊戲開始與結束都需要給予相對應的回饋機制,以便更全面地了解整個遊戲內容發生的情況。這些結果將被用於實驗二中修改遊戲式學習系統,並更進一步探討專家和新手對於修改後的遊戲式學習系統有何不同的觀感。其結果顯示,專家和新手在G1 (規則)、G3、H7、H9與H10 (幫助與說明文件)有不同的觀感,以H9為例,以圖片搭配文字的返回按鈕設計能滿足新手的使用需求,然而,此種返回按鈕的設計對於專家而言是不夠的,專家需要音樂、音效與動畫等額外呈現方式來滿足使用需求,另一方面,在可用性問題的部分專家與新手在H1與H7的可用性問題在實驗二中已改善,這代表著修改後的遊戲式學習系統能夠有效的改善可用性問題。

    最後,本研究綜合整理實驗一與實驗二的結果,而建立了一套遊戲式學習系統的設計準則,此設計準則不僅可以幫助遊戲設計者開發完善的遊戲式學習系統,亦可使遊戲式學習系統能滿足不同使用者的需求。
    ;In recent years, game-based learning systems have been very popular in educational settings. This is due to the fact that game-based learning systems provide many benefits which can support students learning. However, previous research also indicated that the interface of game-based learning systems may cause some problems. For example, game-based learning systems use a lot of game elements, which increase the complexity of user interface. The complex interface would increase the learners’ additional loads so that the learners would show the negative perceptions. Thus, there is a need to consider the usability of a user interface so that learners’ negative perceptions can be reduced. The usability refers to making systems easier to use, and matching them more closely to user needs and requirements. On the other hand, usability evaluation methods are divided into expert evaluations and user testing. Among various expert evaluations, Nielsen’s heuristics are widely applied to examine usability problems because they can rapidly and inexpensively identify usability problems. On the other hand, user testing can be conducted by novices, who do not understand Nielsen’s heuristics and find usability problems based on their past experience. In brief, both expert evaluation and user testing are complementary to each other so they should be considered together. By doing so, usability problems can be effectively identified.

    Therefore, the research presented in this dissertation conducted two empirical studies. In Study One, a game-based learning system was developed to investigate the perceptions of experts and novices. The results of Study One demonstrated that experts and novices have different perceptions in G3 (Representation/Story), G4 (Music/Sound), H1 (Visibility of system Status), H7 (Flexibility and efficiency of use) and H9 (Help users recognise, diagnose and recover from errors). For instances, the results from H1 indicated that novices only pay attention to the final outcomes. Conversely, experts are not only concerned with the final outcomes, but also require detailed descriptions before they started to play the game-based learning system. On the other hand, the results from Study Two suggested that experts and novices have different perceptions in G1 (Rules), G3, H7, H9 and H10 (Help and documentation). For example, the results from H9 indicated that the “undo” button designed with both text and graphics can satisfy novices’ needs. Conversely, experts thought that there is also a need to use additional ways to highlight the “undo” button, such as voice, music and animation. On the other hand, experts and novices were satisfied with the design of the revised game-based learning system because usability problems in H1 and H7 are removed. In other words, the revised game-based learning system was better than the original game-based learning system.

    Finally, design guidelines are proposed. This design guideline can be applied to support designers to develop the effectiveness of game-based learning system so that users needs and requirements can be satisfied.
    Appears in Collections:[網路學習科技研究所 ] 博碩士論文

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