因此，本研究進行了兩個實驗，在實驗一中，本研究開發了一個遊戲式學習系統探討專家和新手對於可用性評估的觀感差異。其結果指出，專家和新手在G3 (圖像/情節)、G4 (音樂/聲音)、H1 (系統狀態可見性)、H7 (靈活性與使用效率)與H9(幫助用戶認識、偵錯並從錯誤中恢復)有不同的觀感，以H1為例，新手僅需要遊戲結束後給予相對應的回饋機制，而專家則在遊戲開始與結束都需要給予相對應的回饋機制，以便更全面地了解整個遊戲內容發生的情況。這些結果將被用於實驗二中修改遊戲式學習系統，並更進一步探討專家和新手對於修改後的遊戲式學習系統有何不同的觀感。其結果顯示，專家和新手在G1 (規則)、G3、H7、H9與H10 (幫助與說明文件)有不同的觀感，以H9為例，以圖片搭配文字的返回按鈕設計能滿足新手的使用需求，然而，此種返回按鈕的設計對於專家而言是不夠的，專家需要音樂、音效與動畫等額外呈現方式來滿足使用需求，另一方面，在可用性問題的部分專家與新手在H1與H7的可用性問題在實驗二中已改善，這代表著修改後的遊戲式學習系統能夠有效的改善可用性問題。
;In recent years, game-based learning systems have been very popular in educational settings. This is due to the fact that game-based learning systems provide many benefits which can support students learning. However, previous research also indicated that the interface of game-based learning systems may cause some problems. For example, game-based learning systems use a lot of game elements, which increase the complexity of user interface. The complex interface would increase the learners’ additional loads so that the learners would show the negative perceptions. Thus, there is a need to consider the usability of a user interface so that learners’ negative perceptions can be reduced. The usability refers to making systems easier to use, and matching them more closely to user needs and requirements. On the other hand, usability evaluation methods are divided into expert evaluations and user testing. Among various expert evaluations, Nielsen’s heuristics are widely applied to examine usability problems because they can rapidly and inexpensively identify usability problems. On the other hand, user testing can be conducted by novices, who do not understand Nielsen’s heuristics and find usability problems based on their past experience. In brief, both expert evaluation and user testing are complementary to each other so they should be considered together. By doing so, usability problems can be effectively identified.
Therefore, the research presented in this dissertation conducted two empirical studies. In Study One, a game-based learning system was developed to investigate the perceptions of experts and novices. The results of Study One demonstrated that experts and novices have different perceptions in G3 (Representation/Story), G4 (Music/Sound), H1 (Visibility of system Status), H7 (Flexibility and efficiency of use) and H9 (Help users recognise, diagnose and recover from errors). For instances, the results from H1 indicated that novices only pay attention to the final outcomes. Conversely, experts are not only concerned with the final outcomes, but also require detailed descriptions before they started to play the game-based learning system. On the other hand, the results from Study Two suggested that experts and novices have different perceptions in G1 (Rules), G3, H7, H9 and H10 (Help and documentation). For example, the results from H9 indicated that the “undo” button designed with both text and graphics can satisfy novices’ needs. Conversely, experts thought that there is also a need to use additional ways to highlight the “undo” button, such as voice, music and animation. On the other hand, experts and novices were satisfied with the design of the revised game-based learning system because usability problems in H1 and H7 are removed. In other words, the revised game-based learning system was better than the original game-based learning system.
Finally, design guidelines are proposed. This design guideline can be applied to support designers to develop the effectiveness of game-based learning system so that users needs and requirements can be satisfied.