|Abstract: ||註記的研究在過去二十年裡蓬勃發展，這是因為註記是一個不可獲缺的學習行為亦帶來許多益處。由於這些益處，註記被整合到許多不同的學習系統上。然而，這些研究主要都集中在探討註記對學習成效的影響，鮮少探討先備知識與不同學習情境對註記行為的影響。更明確來說，過去的研究鮮少探討先備知識對做註記(Making annotations)與查閱註記(Viewing annotations)的影響。除此之外，過去的研究廣泛地探討課中(in-class)對學習的影響，很少有研究探討課後(after-class)對學習者的影響。為了解決上述的問題，本博士論文旨在(一)建置可註記多媒體電子書(Annotatable Multimedia E-reader; AME)，提供個人註記環境(Individual annotation environment)與分享註記環境(Sharing annotation environment)，並進一步支持學習者於課中(In-class)及課後(After-class)學習；(二)透過兩項實證研究，分別探討先備知識對國小五年級學童在個人註記環境與分享註記環境使用AME的影響。這也就是說，本文不僅審查先備知識對學習者做註記與查閱註記的影響，還進一步提供各種註記工具，包括文字註記(Text Annotations)、語音註記(Voice Annotations)、文字轉語音(Text-To-Speech)、錄製老師講解(Teacher’s Lecture)…等功能，支持學習者在課中與課後的學習。|
研究結果發現在分享註記環境，先備知識顯著的影響學習者的課中及課後的學習行為。關於學習行為，HPK學習者傾向使用較多的課中文字註記、課後語音註記與課後聆聽自已的聲音。除此之外，HPK學習者查閱其它高先備學習者的註記內容比LPK學習者多。關於學習行為與學習成就，研究結果指出在課中使用較多的註記其後測成績越高；此外，查閱越多高先備學習者註記內容的學生其後測成績也越高。關於學習感知與學習行為，研究結果指出HPK學習者在課中及課後使用越多的老師講解其感知易用性(Easy to Use)與感知有用性會越高。除此之外，當學習者有較高的課後使用意圖時會聆聽越多的老師講解。
;Research suggests that making annotations is an indispensable behavior that offer many benefits. Due to such benefits, annotations have been applied to support different learning systems. However, such studies largely focused on learning outcomes but rarely considered other factors affect learners within authentic learning environments, such as learners’ prior knowledge, learners’ learning scenarios. More specifically, there are few studies to examine how prior knowledge affects students to make and view annotations. In addition, the in-class scenario has been widely investigated in previous studies, but the effects of after-class scenario were rarely examined. It is, therefore, essential to understand how prior knowledge influences learners to make and to view annotations in and after class. To address these issues, the purposes of this study are to (a) develop an Annotatable Multimedia E-reader (AME) which provided individual/sharing annotation environments to help students learn English in-class and after-class and (b) conduct two empirical studies to examine how prior knowledge influenced fifth-grade students’ reactions to the use of the AME within individual/sharing annotation environments. That is to say, the research presented in this doctoral thesis not only examines the influences of prior knowledge on students’ making and viewing annotations but also further provides annotation tools to support learners to learn in- and after-class scenarios, such as Text Annotations (TA), Voice Annotations (VA), Text-To-Speech (TTS), Teacher’s Lecture (TVA).
The findings from Study One indicated that prior knowledge significantly affected learners’ learning achievement and learning behavior within the individual annotation environment. Regarding the learning achievement, the results demonstrated that the Low Prior knowledge (LPK) students obtained higher gain scores than High Prior knowledge (HPK) students. Regarding the learning behavior, the results demonstrated that the students’ prior knowledge significantly affected their learning behavior after the class. In addition to the influences of prior knowledge, the relationship among learning achievement, learning behavior, and learning perception also revealed some findings. Regarding the relationships between learning achievement and learning behavior, the results demonstrated that the students who tended to use more annotations after-class could have relatively higher post-test scores. Regarding the relationships between learning perception and learning behavior, the results demonstrated that the HPK students who had high levels of Usefulness would use more TVA in-class; the HPK students who have high levels of intention would use fewer OVA after-class; the LPK students who have more intention to use the AME could use more TTS after-class. Regarding the relationships between learning perception and learning behavior, the results demonstrated that the LPK students who perceived a higher level of Usefulness have higher gain scores.
The findings from Study Two indicated that prior knowledge significantly affected learners’ learning behavior within the sharing annotation environment. Regarding the learning behavior, the results demonstrated that the HPK students preferred to use more TA in-class, VA after-class, and OVA after-class than the LPK students. Moreover, the results demonstrate that the HPK students preferred to view more other HPK students’ annotations than the LPK students. Regarding the relationship between learning achievement and learning behavior, the results demonstrated that the students who tended to use more annotations in-class could have relatively higher post-test scores. Moreover, the results demonstrated that viewing more HPK students’ annotations could have higher post-test scores. Regarding the relationships between learning perception and learning behavior, the results demonstrated that the HPK students who would use more TVA in- and after- class had a high level of perceptions for the Easy to Use and Usefulness. In addition, the HPK students who had a high level of intention would use more TVA in-class.
By doing so, this thesis will make contributions to the learning field in a number of ways. Firstly, this will provide a deeper understanding of the learners’ reactions to the use of the AME from the perspectives of prior knowledge, regarding learning achievement, learning behavior and learning perception. Secondly, this will take into account different learning scenarios, which can undertake the first contribution in the area of prior knowledge. In other words, this will provide a deeper understanding of the learners’ reactions to the use of the AME within individual/sharing annotation environments not only in-class but also give an understanding of after-class.