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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/70356


    Title: Diversity and Commonality of Cognitive Profile among Static, Strategic and Interceptive Sports-Expertise
    Authors: 姚在府,;Yao,Zai-Fu
    Contributors: 認知與神經科學研究所
    Keywords: 運動員;認知剖析;注意力網路;感官記憶;停止訊號作業;組合技能;Sport;Cognitive Profile;Component Skill Approach;Sensory memory;Stop Signal Task;Attention Network
    Date: 2016-05-30
    Issue Date: 2016-06-04 12:55:05 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 頂尖運動員優異的運動表現及異於常人的專項運動技巧,是長期身體訓練與中樞神經系統之皮質可塑性的極致表現,也就是所謂的奧運腦。統合性回顧文獻指出,長期持續性運動訓練的選手,在複雜注意力和基礎感官動作速度的認知能力上有較佳的表現,在運動類型方面,尤以截擊式運動選手表現為佳。然而,對於不同類型的運動員,歷經長期不同訓練經驗是否導致在認知處理歷程上的差異,仍不得而知。因此,本研究採用組合技能方法,探討多面向的認知能力在不同運動類型運動員(策略式、截擊式及靜態式)上之差異。此外,應用功能性磁振造影儀,觀察不同類型的頂尖運動員在注意力網路(如警覺性、導向性及衝突性網路)的腦部血氧濃度相依比訊號的變化,藉以瞭解運動員在功能性注意力網路歷程之差異。
    本實驗總共收集64位運動員,其中靜態性運動為14名游泳選手、截擊式運動為19名擊劍選手、策略性運動為15名籃球選手及高身體活動量的非運動員控制組。受試者平均年齡為18至22歲,並配對控制智力、教育程度及身體活動量等變項。實驗設計採用神經心理測驗群組量測不同面向認知能力如:停止訊號作業衡量抑制控制能力、作業轉換測驗衡量注意力轉移能力、部分報告作業衡量映像記憶能力、改變偵測作業衡量視覺空間注意能力及讓受試者進入磁振造影儀進行注意力網路作業,以衡量警覺性、導向性及衝突性網絡歷程在不同運動類型運動員上之差異。
    行為實驗結果顯示,相較於截擊式、靜態式及非運動員控制組,策略性運動的籃球運動員在抑制控制能力及視覺影像記憶能力上有較佳的表現。此外,在注意力網路作業的導向性注意力整體結果顯示運動員相較於非運動員控制組有較佳的表現,暗示著運動員利用視覺空間訊息的效率高於非運動員控制組;而在視覺感官記憶能力上,運動員相較於非運動員控制組在報告刺激物所對應的目標物時有較高的正確率,該作業的敏感指標顯示運動員在感官記憶的衰退歷程較非運動員控制組來的穩定。多組主要成分分析結果顯示,視覺空間注意力及視覺感官記憶和基礎感官運動速度能力,在各組間皆有共同認知成分,而籃球運動員,擁有獨特的認知成分在抑制控制能力指標。
    此外,注意力網路作業相關的功能性磁振造影結果顯示,全腦分析結果與先前研究在各個注意力網路及相對應腦區一致: 警覺性網路活化在雙側顳葉;導向性網路活化在頂葉及後額葉區;而執行控制網路則活化在雙側前額葉及扣帶皮質區。
    而在功能性磁振造影結果中組間的注意力網路成分的差異,相較於其他類型運動員及非運動員,截擊式運動的擊劍選手在警覺性網路時的左腦中央後迴以及在注意力的執行控制網路的前運動皮質皆發現顯著較高的血氧濃度變化。結果顯示截擊式運動的擊劍選手,較仰賴感官動作區來處理維持警覺狀態的注意力及監測內在控制的注意力。靜態式運動的游泳運動員相較於策略式及截擊式運動,則發現在左側枕葉中迴有顯著較高的血氧濃度變化,顯示游泳運動員使用較多視覺處理的資源,處理注意力的執行控制網路。
    最後,長期不同類型的組合技能的運動訓練經驗,造就特定運動員獨特的認知結構並擁有共同的認知成分。此外,截擊式及靜態式運動技能的運動員,在警覺性網路及衝突控制網路,所引起的特殊血氧濃度變化之差異,與先前不同運動類型的專項訓練需要不同的心理技能的假設一致。
    ;Recent studies demonstrated that athletes outperform ordinary people on cognitive tasks requiring processing speed and varied attention. The current study adopted a component skill approach to distinguish different types of athletes and compare their cognitive profiles. Functional MRI experiment is also conduct when participants are performing the attention network test to contrast among various groups of athletes and control to examine how they differ in the alerting (central cue – no cue), orienting (spatial cue - central cue), and conflict resolution (incongruent target – congruent target) components.
    Athletes specialized in static sport (14 swimmers), interceptive sport (19 fencers), or strategic sport (15 basketball players) were recruited. Participants were assessed with a cognitive battery, which consists of tasks examining executive control (stop-signal task and task-switching task, memory (iconic memory task), and varied attention (change detection task). Between-group comparisons showed that basketball players had superior performance on inhibitory control and iconic memory. Overall, the trend of results implies that athletes had better attentional orienting to detect and utilize spatial cues and visual sensory memory than the non-athletes control group. Furthermore, the multi-group principal component analysis on the correlation matrix among task performance of each group indicated the common cognitive structure of visuospatial attention, visual sensory memory, and sensorimotor speed, while there was a unique inhibitory component in the basketball players.
    The task-related FMRI findings of the attentional network in all participants regardless of groups were consistent with the previous studies on distinct neural networks associated with each of the three attention components. Alerting was associated with increased left temporal lobe activation while orienting contrast activated parietal sites and bilateral prefrontal region. Executive control activated cingulate gyrus and prefrontal regions.
    As for the FMRI results of contrasting the attentional network components among groups, fencers showed significantly stronger functional activations than the other groups in the left postcentral gyrus in the contrast of the alerting component, and in the left premotor cortex during executive control of attention when compared with others. These findings indicate that fencers involved somatosensory processing in maintaining alertness and monitoring intrinsic control of visual attention. In addition, the swimmers showed stronger activation than the basketball players and the fencers in left middle occipital gyrus for conflict resolution component, which reflects that swimmer recruit more resources of visual processing to resolving the conflict.
    To conclude, intensive physical training in sports experiences requiring different component skills could render the idiosyncratic cognitive structure in different types of athletes, in addition to the common cognitive components shared by all participants. Unique patterns of BOLD signal changes associated with the alerting and conflict resolution components of ANT can be observed in athletes specialized in interceptive and static sports skills, which is consistent with the idea that different sets of mental demands are required by distinct types of sports.
    Appears in Collections:[認知與神經科學研究所 ] 博碩士論文

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