Bade District, Taoyuan City is situated in the northeast of Taoyuan City. Zhaoan Hakka ancestors in Bade District moved to Taiwan from Zhaoan County, Zhangzhou Prefecture, Fujian Province after the ban against moving to Taiwan was lifted during the reign of Emperor Qianlong in Qing Dynasty. At that time, the Hakka and Fulao immigrants lived here. Due to the improper provincial dichotomy from Qing Dynasty to Japanese Occupation and initial of Republic of China and the difference of voice system between Zhaoan Hakka and Eastern Guangdong Hakka, Zhaoan Hakka was tended to Fulao People in ethnic and linguistic identity. After over two hundred years, now the descendants of Zhaoan Hakka are affected by Fulao culture and gradually become “Fulaolized”, and people of all ages use Fulao language. In particular, the young generation is severely affected by Fulao language the most. In addition to the effect of Fulao language, the wrong Mandarin policy proposed by government also deteriorated the loss of Zhaoan Hakka. Besides, Zhaoan Hakka moved from their hometown of mainland China to Bade District, Taoyuan City; along with them, it was filled with local customs and practices of Zhaoan Hakka, and then they developed Hakka settlement with frugal, simple and hard-working characteristics in Bade and also remained lots of Hakka’s traditional culture during the developing process of Bade. However, with the development of urbanization and industrialization, the Hakka’s traditional cultural had gradually loss and been forgotten.
Bade District, Taoyuan City was involved in the research, and local Zhaoan Hakka were the research participants. Researcher applied the current status to discuss the Zhaoan Hakka language use situation and the ethnic identity, and adopted semi-structured in-depth interview method for research analysis. Based on research findings, there were four situations in progress: First, the boundary between Zhaoan Hakka and Fulao ethnic group was increasingly blurred; second, the competence for Zhaoan Hakka language use was positively correlated to age, namely, people with higher age had better competence for Zhaoan Hakka language use; third, Zhaoan Hakka ethnic groups had different identity connotations between two generations, old people and young people, indicating the old people’s identity was based on ancestral hometown, while young people’s identity was based on language; fourth, language is regarded as the important mark of an ethnic group. If language losses gradually, it means that the Zhaoan Hakka ethnic group will also disappear in the future. Finally, in terms of assimilation theory of Gordan (1964), Zhaoan Hakka in Bade District, Taoyuan City encountered the situation between assimilation of marriage and assimilation of identity.
Keywords: Zhaoan Hakka, Fulaolized Hakka, Fulaolization, Ethnic Assimilation, Ethnic Identity