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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/71824


    Title: 慈濟慈善事業基金會在中國大陸的發展策略
    Authors: 涂雨雯;Tu,Yu-Wen
    Contributors: 高階主管企管碩士班
    Keywords: 非政府組織;非營利組織;宗教非政府組織;慈濟;證嚴法師;策略發展;志工;佛教;Non-Governmental Organization(NGO);Non-Profit Organization (NPO);Religious Non-Governmental Organization(RNGO);Tzu Chi;Dharma Master Cheng Yen;strategic development;volunteer;Buddhism
    Date: 2016-06-17
    Issue Date: 2016-10-13 13:55:22 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 由於全球化的影響,國與國之間的交流需有一個第三方的平台,使其在這個平台上相互協商,維護自己國家的利益又不阻饒全球的發展,訂定各國須遵守的條款,而聯合國(UN)、國際貿易組織(WTO)、國際貨幣組織(IMF)等國際組織應運而生,然涉及全球的公共事務也非完全能由目前由政府代表組成的國際組織可以完全囊括,在各國內部組成的民間組織由於時代的變遷也慢慢拓展其國際化的領域,協助各國政府解決問題。中國近幾年雖躍昇為世界第二大經濟體,其人口數佔世界大約18%,中國民間組織雖發展較晚,但其數量逐年在增加當中。中國的非政府/非營利組織屬於社會組織的一部分,為公民建設行為形成的組織,中國的社會組織分為三類,即社會團體、基金會和民辦非企業單位。
    佛教慈濟慈善基金會為來自台灣的一個宗教非政府組織,佛教自東漢時從印度傳入中國以來,其教義影響著中國的藝術、政治、文學、哲學、醫藥等。經過長期的演化,逐漸與中國傳統文化儒家與道家的思想相融合,演變成中國化的佛教。「新中國」成立不久,佛教便在馬克思理論主張<宗教是人民的鴉片>的基礎下接受革命改造。隨著市場經濟的活絡,人民必須面臨追求富足慾望,生活方式的抉擇,貧富之間的差距也逐漸加大,佛教因應市場經濟波動也產生各種變化,而在中國及台灣兩地佛教的發展,也有不同的偏向。
    新中國的佛教在經歷文化大革命後,面臨改革開放的時代,宗教政策面臨修正,佛教古蹟和文物被列為國家文化遺產保護,也被視為對國際關係、觀光事業發展有所助益的範疇,再度受到重視並在政府相關部門的「監管」下成長。然而在台灣的佛教卻逐漸轉向「人間佛教」發展,走入人群中,並協助政府解決社會問題,慈濟慈善基金自1991年進入中國以來,在中國各地區發展慈善工作,為中國第一個有組織的國際性宗教非政府組織,經過二十多年的努力,最終在2008年成為第一個在中國註冊的境外基金會,並獲得政府承認的佛教慈善組織,其成功的發展原因歸納如下:
    一、 有別於中國的佛教,受天主教修女的啟發,將慈善的力量組織起來,將佛法人間化,走入人群,有組織的投入社會工作。
    二、 堅持政教分離的立場,只專心在救助工作及發展慈濟的四大志業八大腳印。
    三、 慈濟「志工」而非慈濟「義工」,其「志願」投入志業,帶動組織走向國際。
    四、 「慈濟精神」驅動著慈濟志工使命。
    五、 平行組織規劃,體現佛法的人人平等的精神。
    六、 小組關懷,多組活動的「社區志工」組織規劃,使其動員人力更加迅速。;Due to the impact of globalization, countries are in need of a third plate form to communicate with each other and to safeguard the interest of their own country without impeding the global development, stipulating terms that countries should comply with. The United Nations (UN), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and other international organizations are emerged as the times require. However, not all of the global public affairs can be all resolved by the international organization composed by the representatives from the government. Civil organizations in different countries are growing with times and slowly expand its business internationally to assist Governments to solve the problems. China with 18% of the world’s population, in recent year, has emerged as world’s second largest economy. Though the development of civil organization in China is a little bit late, the numbers of civil organization are increasing year by year. Chinese NGO and NPO are part of the social organizations, which manifest interests and will of citizens. China’s social organization is divided into three categories: social organization, foundations and private non-enterprise units.
    Buddhist Compassion Relief Tzu Chi Foundation is a religious Non-Governmental Organization from Taiwan. Buddhism was transmitted to China from India since Eastern Han dynasty and Buddhist ideas and practices have shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas, including art, politics, literature, philosophy, medicine, and material culture. With long evolution over two thousand years in each dynasty, Buddhism has integrated with traditional Chinese culture of Confucianism and Taoism and finally become Chinese Buddhism. Not long after “New China” established, Buddhism was experiencing revolutionary reformed under Marxist theory advocated “religion is the opium of the people”. With the growth of prosperous market economy, people must face the pursuit of desires and the choices of lifestyle. The gap between the rich and the poor are gradually increasing. Buddhism was also transformed to meet different needs of society. Buddhism in China and Taiwan developed toward to the different ways.
    After experiencing the Great Cultural Revolution and then toward the era of economy reform, religious policy in China faces amendments. Buddhist monuments and artifacts have been listed as a national cultural heritage protection, also seen as the benefit of international relationship development and tourism business. Again, Buddhism gets government’s attention and grows under the “supervision” of relevant government departments. However, the Buddhism in Taiwan developed toward to “Humanistic Buddhism”. Several Buddhist organizations are setting up charity group and helping government to resolve social problems. Tzu Chi foundation entered to China since 1991 and focused on philanthropy in many cities of China. Tzu Chi is the first organizational and International RNGO in China and also the first legally registered overseas funds and Buddhist organization in 2008 after twenty years of effort. Its successful strategies are summarized as below:
    1. Unlike China’s Buddhism, Dharma Master Cheng Yen has endeavored to bring the Buddha’s doctrine into people’s daily lives, and inspired by Catholic nuns, she has gathered her disciples to devote themselves into social work in an organized way.
    2. Insist on staying away from politics and focusing on “Tzu Chi’s Eight footprints” to relieve needy people from sufferings.
    3. Tzu Chi commissioners dedicate themselves to the Master’s commitment as their own and take part in four missions globally.
    4. With “Tzuchi’s spirit”, volunteers drive themselves to carry out the missions with pure heart and clear minds, and to develop a harmonious society.
    5. Unique organizational structure shows the essence of Buddhism that everyone is equal.
    6. “Community volunteer” makes the mobilization more efficient and quick.
    Appears in Collections:[高階主管企管(EMBA)碩士班] 博碩士論文

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