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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/72242


    Title: 從認知風格的角度探討提示對學習英文片語與文法的影響;The Effects of Hints on Learning of English Phrases and English Grammar: A Cognitive Style Approach
    Authors: 葉家齊;Yeh,Chia-Chi
    Contributors: 網路學習科技研究所
    Keywords: 認知風格;提示;英文學習;Cognitive Styles;Hints;English Learning
    Date: 2016-07-25
    Issue Date: 2016-10-13 14:34:29 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 線上測量(E-assessment)是讓學生能夠進行測驗與促進學習的電子平台。然而傳統的線上測量缺少了一些的輔助功能來幫助學生學習,故可能導致學生在學習過程時產生負面學習而降低學習成效。在另一方面,鷹架是能夠有效克服此問題的解決辦法,而在眾多的鷹架機制當中,提示(Hints)是允許學生根據所要完成的任務,主動地自由篩選自己想要的輔助資訊,故本研究將提示整合進入英語學習的線上測量。

    在學習英文中,學術英文尤其重要,因為學術英文的用法比一般英文更為嚴謹,且學術英文所撰寫的類別、準確度、精確性以及文字清晰等要求度也較高。此外,在學術英文中有些字彙和一般英文的用法也較為不同,因此有必要提供學術英文的課程與教材讓學生更加瞭解。另一方面,在學術英文的學習項目當中,文法與片語為其中重要且提供不同的學習概念,例如:英文片語的用法關係較為固定,並不會因為前後文的差別而導致片語中的意義有所改變,因此學生只要利用記憶能力就能夠將片語學好,換言之,片語概念較為單一;然而英文文法主要是將英文字彙有規則的組合成句子,以表達出正確或複雜的意思,且文法的用法可能會因為句中前後文的差別而導致用法隨著改變,學生除了需要記憶能力以外還需要深入地了解其中的差別,亦即是文法概念較為複雜。

    在提供提示輔助學生學習英文片語與文法時,個體差異仍存在於學生之間,而這些差異都可能影響學生在選擇不同的提示上產生差異,因此本研究進行了兩個實驗,受試者均為來自台灣北部某大學的工程科系研究生。實驗一主要探討學生在使用線上測量學習英語片語時,認知風格如何影響學生使用同義字提示與中文提示與使用這些提示如何影響他們的學習成效、學習觀感與學習行為?其結果指出,整體型學生使用提示次數上顯著高於序列型學生;反之序列型學生雖然使用提示次數低於整體型學生,但他們在使用提示的次數上卻與任務分數有顯著正相關,且他們在提供比較少以及沒有提示的環境下,作答時間也較長;此外,整體型學生在學習英文片語的環境下有重複使用提示的情況發生,換句話說,整體型學生會利用重複使用提示的方式,讓他們有更多的英文聯想以幫助作答,而序列型學生則是比較需要額外的輔助來幫助他們作答。

    實驗二主要探討學生在使用線上測量學習英語文法時,認知風格如何影響學生使用簡單、適中與詳細提示作答與這些提示如何影響他們的學習成效、學習觀感與學習行為?其結果顯示出,整體型學生在使用所提供較為詳細資訊的提示之使用次數上與任務分數有顯著負相關的情況發生;此外,序列型學生在學習英文文法的環境下有重複使用提示的情況發生。此外,序列型學生在提供多重提示的環境下,完成任務的花費時間高於提供適中提示環境的測驗時間,但他們在提供多重提示的環境下,測驗分數也相對高於提供適中提示的測驗分數,換句話說,多重提示的環境雖然與序列型的學生的偏好不相符,但是他們卻得到比較高的成績,因此,不符合學生認知風格的環境不見得不利於序列型學生學習。

    綜上所述,兩次的實驗結果有所差異,在實驗一學習英文片語時,學生使用的策略大部分是符合其認知風格的特質,但在實驗二學習英文文法時,學生使用的策略不完全符合其認知風格的特質,因此本研究的貢獻在於認知風格的影響可能會因學科內容而改變。
    ;E-assessment, refers to the evaluation of the knowledge or skills of students in a computer-based environment. However, traditional E-assessment may lack guidance or support so students may have low learning motivation, which may negatively affect their learning performance. On the other hand, scaffolding is one of effective learning tools, which can address the aforementioned problem. Among various types of scaffolding, hint is a mechanism that can give support to students based on their needs so hints are applied to support English learning in this study.

    English learning covers a wide range of issues, among which the usage of academic English would be stricter and more logical than general English. More specifically, accuracy, clarity and simplicity are key elements in academic English. Moreover, the usages of some vocabularies, e.g., “argue”, “suggest” and “approach” are different from those used in general English. Thus, there is a need to provide academic English courses. In general, academic English courses includes several subtopics, among which English phrases and English grammar are the most important because they make it possible to exchange information in English. The concepts of English phrases are simpler while those of English grammar are more complex during thinking process. This is due to the fact that the thinking process of English phrases is static while that of English gramma is dynamic. Thus, students can learn how to apply phrases by just memorizing their meaning and the usage. Conversely, students need to not only memorize various grammar rule, but also have to understand how to use these rules correctly

    Due to such differences, this research attempted to identify how students learn English phrases and English grammar with hints. In addition to differences between English phrases and English grammar, individual differences also existed among students. In particular, cognitive styles greatly affect student learning. Hence, two empirical studies were conducted. The participants of these two studies were recruited from students who studied in the College of Engineering at the National Central University in Taiwan. Study One is to identify how cognitive styles affect students to learn English phrases via hints in the context of E-assessment? The results of Study One demonstrate that Holists more frequently used the hints than Serialists. Moreover, Serialists’ task scores were positively related to the frequencies of using Chinese hints as well as those of using synonym hints and they took more time to complete the task, in the conditions which provided fewer hints or no hints. Additionally, Holists demonstrated an iterative behavior when using hints. In other words, Holists takes an iterative approach to gain more thought while Serialists’ need additional support.

    On the other hand, Study Two was to investigate how cognitive styles affect students to learn English grammar via hints in the context of E-assessment. The results of Study Two suggested that Holists’ task scores were negatively related to the frequencies of using intermediate hints and detailed hints in the IH condition Additionally, Serialists demonstrated an iterative behavior in using hints. Moreover, Serialists in the MH condition significantly spent more time completing the tasks than those in the IH condition but Serialists in the MH condition obtained higher task scores than those in the IH condition. More specifically, the design features of the MH condition mismatched with the characteristics of the Serialists but they obtained higher task scores in the MH condition. Therefore, the mismatching condition may be useful to improve Serialists learning performance.
    In summary, the results from the aforementioned two studies demonstrated different outcome. More specifically, behavior that each cognitive style demonstrated in Study One (i.e, the context of English phrases) reflected their characteristics whereas behavior that each cognitive style group showed in Study Two (i.e., the context of English grammar) did not echo their characteristics. Thus, this research contributes a new understanding, which means that subject topics may change people’s cognitive styles. In other words, people’s cognitive styles may not be always consistent with all of subject topics.
    Appears in Collections:[網路學習科技研究所 ] 博碩士論文

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