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    題名: 福建省連城縣南片文亨、莒溪客家話研究
    作者: 楊世玲;YANG, SHIH-LING
    貢獻者: 客家語文暨社會科學學系客家研究碩士在職專班
    關鍵詞: 閩西;文亨;莒溪;客家;聲母送氣;Wenheng;Chuxi;Hakka
    日期: 2017-08-24
    上傳時間: 2017-10-27 13:43:21 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 國立中央大學
    摘要: 閩、粵、贛連線的山區是客家話的故鄉,閩西連城的客家話以內部差異性大見稱,本文田調的文亨、莒溪客家話,又以相同鄉鎮但不同村落之別,而與之前學者的語音描述略歧,可見此地客家話橫向座標的刻度細密、縱向座標的悠遠頤長。故此,語言的分片規範,在本地的辨識意義僅供參考,實際的音讀更加引人思量嚮往。今日所耳聞目見,究係源於傳承、接觸、流變、學效,都值得仔細觀察、謹慎研究。本論文期冀在客家語言的拼圖上補綴拾遺。
    本論文以六個章節對文亨、莒溪客家話進行探討。第一章緒論由研究動機切入當地的歷史背景與語言概況,以探討文獻勾勒兩地語言的特點及源考,以研究方法及步驟敘明寫作和閱讀本論文的邏輯及方式。第二章呈現出文亨、莒溪客家話的平面語音系統,舉凡聲、韻、調、文白、異讀及連讀變調等等,以鋪敘為主,力求寫實。第三章藉由兩地客家話與中古語音的比較,探討文亨、莒溪客家話音韻演變的現象。第四章延續第三章所探討的發展狀況,批露出兩地語音的特色。第五章透過對當地特殊詞彙的說明、底層語言的探析及連城內部詞彙的比較,對文亨、莒溪客家話的詞彙做縱向與橫向的剖析。第六章為本論文的結論,就本文的研究成果和檢討建議提出綜合報告。
    文亨、莒溪客家話語音特點頗多,總體而言,當地語音正走在變動不穩的崎嶇道路之上,原有的或許僅存散兵游勇,但仍力拼固守城池,新生的即使羽翼未豐,但實質上已然成立,特殊的音韻發展歷程,造成語音系統治絲益棼的紛亂情況,然而仔細抽剝之後,「亂中有序」才是文亨、莒溪語音的真實寫照。特例的「」是本論文中橫跨云、以母合口字的音位性濁擦音聲母、多數客家話及本地客語的特色唇齒元音、遇攝合口一等影母及三等微母的成音節輔音。三重身份集於一身,雖是特別但並不突兀,尤其在「客語的特色唇齒元音」和「成音節輔音」部分,唇齒未嘗分離之音讀表現,只是完成正名工作而已。
    聲母的送氣狀況在文亨、莒溪的語音現象中佔有舉足輕重的份量,其中「聲母送氣的變化牽動聲調陰陽的確立」為此地語音現象的一項新發現,而「陰入字送氣與否連帶影響到喉塞韻尾的存廢」、「濁音清化聲調的去向和送氣與否有相當的關連」;另外文亨、莒溪客家話的捲舌化發展,造就「精、知、莊、章有四組塞音和塞擦音游走」,可見「前化運動」正在熱烈進行中;還有文亨、莒溪客家話的見系涵蓋了聲母顎化的每一個階段,也是本地聲母系統的亮點;至於泥母逢細音讀為舌尖或舌面清音,則為一少見卻存在的特殊而有意義的語音現象。
    韻母部分基於與聲母變化的相同理由,文亨、莒溪的語音呈現出「韻母數量龐大但又轄字分散」的狀況,遇攝合口三等的平聲字,在莒溪一地就涵蓋了十個韻母,文亨更多達十一個韻母形式。此外本地客家話中同時存在著由-韻所牽帶出的所有韻母,甚至牽連聲母的演變過程,更為韻母的多變化、多保留,多下了一個註解。陰聲韻裡文亨的-、莒溪的-韻;入聲韻裡文亨是-、莒溪的-韻,當重疊在對方的語音系統中,就可觀察到兩地相關語音在歷史上的疊置現象。而由合口-韻卷舌化而來的-韻,不但連帶影響了聲母的舌位,更造就了文亨、莒溪客家話的特殊音讀。至於本地上聲調值近於陽入而有的「類喉塞」現象,與鄭張尚芳先生所提「古漢語上聲帶喉塞」說法似乎頗有關連,但又實有出入。文亨、莒溪林林總總的韻母特色,將本地語音妝點得分外繽紛。
    聲調在文亨、莒溪語音中的表現,除了「連讀變調」極具特色外,「濁上多歸去、少數生活用語歸陰平」;「入聲分陰陽、陰入送氣定喉塞」﹔「聲母送氣定聲調陰陽」;「次濁上與陰上合流、全濁上多歸陽去,上聲調值近於陽入」;「去聲分陰陽,濁上多歸去」等現象,都值得觀察與端詳。
    詞彙是方言的靈魂,在語音的荒煙漫草中,往往關鍵少數的詞彙,讓語言找到層埋於歷史中的迢迢來時路。文亨、莒溪的詞彙中,另有與「南方底層語言」難分難捨的絲扣牽連,本論文參照李如龍先生、游文良先生、羅美珍、鄧曉華先生之大作,分別就文亨、莒溪客家話的特徵詞彙,對古越語底層;畬語的底層、中層、表層;客語口語詞的其他文化來源做出比對分析,最後佐以連城內部中堡、培田、賴源的詞彙調查為襯,盼對兩地詞彙表現達成中肯註解。文亨、莒溪的客家話在稱謂上用「聲調」或「單字」來表達差異;聲母 - 字開頭的稱謂語;單字、詞彙「屙」、「乳房」、「人」、「有」、「薸」、「徛」等等,都訴說著文亨、莒溪饒富旨趣的語音故事。

    關鍵字︰閩西連城、平面語音系統、音位性聲母、唇齒元音、成音節輔音、疊置現象、底層語言
    ;The mountains connected to Fujian, Guangdong and Jiangxi is the hometown of Hakka. Minxi Hakka is known for its huge internal difference, while Wenheng and Chuxi Hakka in the context are different villages in the in the same township, and the intonation is different from the previous. We can see the horizontal scale of Hakka is fine and delicate while the vertical scale has long history. Therefore, the segmentation of Hakka in local area can only reference, and the actual intonation is unidentifiable. What we see and here today is passed down, contacted, reformed and learned, which deserves careful observation and study. This essay aims to supplement what is lost in the puzzle of Hakka language.
    The essay discussed Wenhen and Chuxi Hakka in six chapters. The first chapter introduces the historical background and overall profile of language in the areas as research motives, discusses the features and sources of the areas through literature, and illustrates research method and procedures, and the logic and method to read this essay. In chapter two, the plane voice system of Wenhen and Chuxi Hakka is presented, including the sound, rhyme, tune, literary and colloquial readings of the same Chinese character, and tone sandhi; in this chapter, narrative technique is adapted to present authentic. In the third chapter, the sound of Wenhen and Chuxi Hakka is compared to medieval voice to discuss the evolution of phonology. Chapter four extends the development of Chapter three to disclose the intonation feature of these two areas. In Chapter five, the vocabulary of Whenhen and Chuxi Hakka is analyzed horizontally and vertically to discuss special vocabulary, underlying language and comparison of Hakka in Minxi Liancheng County. Chapter six is the conclusion of the essay, presenting the research result, review and suggestions.
    There are many phonology features of Wenhen and Chixi Hakka; in general, the development of local intonation is unstable; only a few features stay tenaciously while new features are gradually born. The special intonation development process caused chaos in the system; however, if carefully analyzed, you will find an order in the chaos. The exception “-“ is a syllable consonant that has the features of voiced glottal fricative initial of yunmu and yimu, labiodental consonant that most of Hakka dialect has, and syllabic consonant such as yu group with the media (division I) and weimu (light labial) division III. Having the three identities makes it special but not unexpected, especially on the labiodental consonant that most of Hakka dialect has, and syllabic consonant, as those are to complete the name for the sound that lips and teeth are not separated.
    The aspiration of initial consonant plays an important role in Wenhen and Chuxi Hakka, especially that “the change of aspiration in initial consonant establishes the yin and yang of intonation”, which is a new discovery in local intonation. The “whether the aspiration of yi character affect the abolition of glottal stop” and “whether there is connection with the direction or aspiration of initial devoicing” still needs to be discussed. In addition, the retroflexion development of Wenhen and Chuxi Hakka develops “plosive and fricative in four characters- 精(jing), 知(zhi), 莊(Zhuang), 章(zhang)” , meaning that the initial consonant movement is being carried out enthusiastically. Also, each stage of the palatalization of initial consonant in Wenhen and Chuxi Hakka is the spotlight of local initial consonant. Whether “ne” and “ts” are read by tip of the tongue or lingual surface is a rare but meaningful acoustic phenomena.
    Based on the same reason of initial vowel, there are large numbers of “final” in Wenhen and Chuxi but very scattered. For example, an even-tone character of yu group with the media (division III) in Chuxi contains 10 finals and even more up 11 finals in Wenhen Hakka. In this foreign Hakka, there exists - final and its variation, giving more variety of final. When the - in yin final of Wenhen meets - final of Chuxi, or - final in Wenhen meets - final of Chuxi, you can observe the overlap phonology history of these two areas. And the - final evolved to - final by retroflexion effects the tongue position of initial consonant, making the acoustic of Wenhen and Chixi Hakka more special. As the local intonation is similar to “glottal stop” phenomenon, it seems to be quite related to “ancient Chinese falling-rising tone has glottal stop” proposed by Mr. Shen-Fan Chang, but not exactly the same. There are so many features of final in Whenhen and Chuxi Hakka, enriching local acoustics.
    Regarding the intonation of Wenhen and Chuxi, except “continuous change of intonation” is extremely unique, “voiced rising tone is mostly becomes fourth tone”, “the checked tone is divided into yin and yang while the aspiration of yang becomes glottal stop”, “the yin and yang of initial consonant aspiration”, “ the sub-voiced rising and rising yin becomes united, while the rising voiced becomes yang and the rising intonation is similar to yang”, “the falling intonation can be divided into yin and yang, the voiced rising intonation becomes falling”; these phenomena all deserves observation and analysis.

    Vocabulary is the soul of dialect; in the vast sea of intonation, usually a few key words lead the language to finds its way through the past long history. In the vocabulary of Wenhen and Chuxi Hakka, there is a hard to get rid of thread implicated with “underlying language of the south”. This essay references the study of Ru-Long Le, Wen-Liang You, Mei-Zhen Lo and Xiao-Hua Deng to discuss the featured vocabulary of Wenhen and Chuxi Hakka with the bottom of ancient Yue dialect, the bottom, middle and surface layer of She language, and oral dialect of Hakka with other culture. And last, supplemented research on the vocabulary of other areas in Liangchen County, including Zhong-Bao, Pei-Tien and Lai-Yuan in the hoped to achieve a non-bias conclusion. In Wenhen and Chuxi Hakka, the title of relationship is differentiated by “intonation” or “single character”; for example, the title started by initial consonant , the single word or vocabulary such as 屙/44/, 乳房/naN44/, 人/33/、/33/、/33/, 有[42]( 42), 薸/33/ and徛[42]( 42) tell the rich and interesting story regarding intonation in Wehnen and Chuxi Hakka.

    Keywords:
    Minxi Liancheng, flat voice system, phonemic consonant, labiodental consonant, syllabic consonant, overlap, bottom language
    顯示於類別:[客家研究碩士在職專班] 博碩士論文

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