詞彙是方言的靈魂，在語音的荒煙漫草中，往往關鍵少數的詞彙，讓語言找到層埋於歷史中的迢迢來時路。文亨、莒溪的詞彙中，另有與「南方底層語言」難分難捨的絲扣牽連，本論文參照李如龍先生、游文良先生、羅美珍、鄧曉華先生之大作，分別就文亨、莒溪客家話的特徵詞彙，對古越語底層；畬語的底層、中層、表層；客語口語詞的其他文化來源做出比對分析，最後佐以連城內部中堡、培田、賴源的詞彙調查為襯，盼對兩地詞彙表現達成中肯註解。文亨、莒溪的客家話在稱謂上用「聲調」或「單字」來表達差異；聲母 - 字開頭的稱謂語；單字、詞彙「屙」、「乳房」、「人」、「有」、「薸」、「徛」等等，都訴說著文亨、莒溪饒富旨趣的語音故事。
;The mountains connected to Fujian, Guangdong and Jiangxi is the hometown of Hakka. Minxi Hakka is known for its huge internal difference, while Wenheng and Chuxi Hakka in the context are different villages in the in the same township, and the intonation is different from the previous. We can see the horizontal scale of Hakka is fine and delicate while the vertical scale has long history. Therefore, the segmentation of Hakka in local area can only reference, and the actual intonation is unidentifiable. What we see and here today is passed down, contacted, reformed and learned, which deserves careful observation and study. This essay aims to supplement what is lost in the puzzle of Hakka language.
The essay discussed Wenhen and Chuxi Hakka in six chapters. The first chapter introduces the historical background and overall profile of language in the areas as research motives, discusses the features and sources of the areas through literature, and illustrates research method and procedures, and the logic and method to read this essay. In chapter two, the plane voice system of Wenhen and Chuxi Hakka is presented, including the sound, rhyme, tune, literary and colloquial readings of the same Chinese character, and tone sandhi; in this chapter, narrative technique is adapted to present authentic. In the third chapter, the sound of Wenhen and Chuxi Hakka is compared to medieval voice to discuss the evolution of phonology. Chapter four extends the development of Chapter three to disclose the intonation feature of these two areas. In Chapter five, the vocabulary of Whenhen and Chuxi Hakka is analyzed horizontally and vertically to discuss special vocabulary, underlying language and comparison of Hakka in Minxi Liancheng County. Chapter six is the conclusion of the essay, presenting the research result, review and suggestions.
There are many phonology features of Wenhen and Chixi Hakka; in general, the development of local intonation is unstable; only a few features stay tenaciously while new features are gradually born. The special intonation development process caused chaos in the system; however, if carefully analyzed, you will find an order in the chaos. The exception “-“ is a syllable consonant that has the features of voiced glottal fricative initial of yunmu and yimu, labiodental consonant that most of Hakka dialect has, and syllabic consonant such as yu group with the media (division I) and weimu (light labial) division III. Having the three identities makes it special but not unexpected, especially on the labiodental consonant that most of Hakka dialect has, and syllabic consonant, as those are to complete the name for the sound that lips and teeth are not separated.
The aspiration of initial consonant plays an important role in Wenhen and Chuxi Hakka, especially that “the change of aspiration in initial consonant establishes the yin and yang of intonation”, which is a new discovery in local intonation. The “whether the aspiration of yi character affect the abolition of glottal stop” and “whether there is connection with the direction or aspiration of initial devoicing” still needs to be discussed. In addition, the retroflexion development of Wenhen and Chuxi Hakka develops “plosive and fricative in four characters- 精(jing), 知(zhi), 莊(Zhuang), 章(zhang)” , meaning that the initial consonant movement is being carried out enthusiastically. Also, each stage of the palatalization of initial consonant in Wenhen and Chuxi Hakka is the spotlight of local initial consonant. Whether “ne” and “ts” are read by tip of the tongue or lingual surface is a rare but meaningful acoustic phenomena.
Based on the same reason of initial vowel, there are large numbers of “final” in Wenhen and Chuxi but very scattered. For example, an even-tone character of yu group with the media (division III) in Chuxi contains 10 finals and even more up 11 finals in Wenhen Hakka. In this foreign Hakka, there exists - final and its variation, giving more variety of final. When the - in yin final of Wenhen meets - final of Chuxi, or - final in Wenhen meets - final of Chuxi, you can observe the overlap phonology history of these two areas. And the - final evolved to - final by retroflexion effects the tongue position of initial consonant, making the acoustic of Wenhen and Chixi Hakka more special. As the local intonation is similar to “glottal stop” phenomenon, it seems to be quite related to “ancient Chinese falling-rising tone has glottal stop” proposed by Mr. Shen-Fan Chang, but not exactly the same. There are so many features of final in Whenhen and Chuxi Hakka, enriching local acoustics.
Regarding the intonation of Wenhen and Chuxi, except “continuous change of intonation” is extremely unique, “voiced rising tone is mostly becomes fourth tone”, “the checked tone is divided into yin and yang while the aspiration of yang becomes glottal stop”, “the yin and yang of initial consonant aspiration”, “ the sub-voiced rising and rising yin becomes united, while the rising voiced becomes yang and the rising intonation is similar to yang”, “the falling intonation can be divided into yin and yang, the voiced rising intonation becomes falling”; these phenomena all deserves observation and analysis.
Vocabulary is the soul of dialect; in the vast sea of intonation, usually a few key words lead the language to finds its way through the past long history. In the vocabulary of Wenhen and Chuxi Hakka, there is a hard to get rid of thread implicated with “underlying language of the south”. This essay references the study of Ru-Long Le, Wen-Liang You, Mei-Zhen Lo and Xiao-Hua Deng to discuss the featured vocabulary of Wenhen and Chuxi Hakka with the bottom of ancient Yue dialect, the bottom, middle and surface layer of She language, and oral dialect of Hakka with other culture. And last, supplemented research on the vocabulary of other areas in Liangchen County, including Zhong-Bao, Pei-Tien and Lai-Yuan in the hoped to achieve a non-bias conclusion. In Wenhen and Chuxi Hakka, the title of relationship is differentiated by “intonation” or “single character”; for example, the title started by initial consonant , the single word or vocabulary such as 屙/44/, 乳房/naN44/, 人/33/、/33/、/33/, 有( 42), 薸/33/ and徛( 42) tell the rich and interesting story regarding intonation in Wehnen and Chuxi Hakka.
Minxi Liancheng, flat voice system, phonemic consonant, labiodental consonant, syllabic consonant, overlap, bottom language