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|Title: ||閱讀效能在中文字辨認的視覺擁擠效應之影響;The Influences of Individual Differences in Reading Proficiency on Visual Crowding Effects during Chinese Character Recognition|
|Authors: ||高焄紋;Kao, Hsun-Wen|
|Keywords: ||中文字辨認;視覺擁擠效應;視覺廣度;可辨識視窗;閱讀效能;Chinese character recognition;visual crowding effect;visual span;uncrowded window;reading proficiency|
|Issue Date: ||2017-10-27 16:11:54 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||過去學者們嘗試用兩種層面去解釋閱讀能力差異的原因，一種為認知層面，而另一種為知覺層面。本研究從視知覺層面來看閱讀效能在中文字辨認表現上的差異。過去文獻提及視覺廣度大小與閱讀速度有相關性，而調節視覺廣度大小的主要決定因子為視覺擁擠效應(He, Legge, & Yu, 2013)。過去檢驗視覺廣度大小相關的研究，大多以拼音文字書寫系統為主。繁體字的型態複雜度較高，且大多為兩個以上的部件組合成複合字，目前少有研究檢驗型態較複雜的中文字對視覺廣度的影響。本篇研究目的為檢驗不同複雜度的繁體中文字如何誘導視覺擁擠效應產生，並探討不同閱讀效能的讀者受到視覺擁擠效應的干擾差異。本研究採用旁側干擾作業檢驗視覺擁擠效應對文字辨識的影響。實驗操弄三個獨變項，5種視野位置（左側與右側視野周邊、左側與右側近視野中央與視野中央）、3種文字複雜度（低、中等與高複雜度），以及是否受到旁側干擾字所包圍。透過受試者於不同情況下的辨認正確率及作答反應時間，檢驗各文字複雜度如何誘導視覺擁擠效應產生，與目標字與旁側干擾字所形成的字間擁擠效應對文字辨識的影響。接著，依據中文字唸名作業之結果將所招收的大學生分類成高低閱讀效能組，並與旁側干擾作業做連結。|
;In the past, many studies have tried to explain the differences of reading proficiency through two perspectives. One is cognitive components and another is perceptual components. This study will examine the differences of Chinese character recognition in reading proficiency from the visual perceptual view. Previous studies have mentioned that a visual crowding effect has a major impact on the visual span size, as which is related to reading speed (He et al., 2013). Factors affecting the size of the visual span have been studied in alphabetic order. However, Traditional Chinese characters are often made up of more than two radicals which are called compound words. There is a visual crowding effect formation between radical and radical in Traditional Chinese characters. There are only a few studies investigating the effects of Chinese characters with greater pattern complexities in visual span. This study aims to examine how a variety of character complexities lead to a visual crowding effect during the recognition of Traditional Chinese characters and how visual crowding effect contributes to reading proficiency of Chinese readers. In this study, flanker task was used to investigate the visual crowding effect on Chinese character recognition. Three independent variables were manipulated to include five visual fields (left periphery, left parafovea, fovea, right parafovea, and right periphery), three character complexities (low, medium and high complexities), and flanked condition. Accuracy rates and reaction times were employed to investigate the magnitude of visual crowding effect of character complexities and between-character crowding effect of target chatacter and embedded characters on Chinese character recognition. Next, Chinese characters naming task was also adopted to divide our subjects into two groups—group of high reading proficiency (HR) and group of low reading proficiency (LR) and linked with the flanker task.
The results showed that between-character crowding effect was getting stronger when the target character was far from the fovea. There was an interaction between character complexities and between-character crowding effect indicating that the effect of character complexities only showed up in the between-character crowding situation. In addition, LR group was influenced more by the effect of character complexities when the target character presented in the parafovea and LR group was influenced more by the between-character crowding effect when the target character presented in the periphery. According to these results, the visual crowding effect takes place in the peripheral vision and the influences of character complexities to readers depends on the magnitude of between-character crowding effect. Reading an article or sentences are common reading activities and the between-character crowding effect is the primary dominator in the process of character recognition. Second, reading proficiency reflected the abilities of discriminating neighboring characters and this ability changed as the location of target character changed. Thus, HR and LR suffered from different degrees of between-character crowding effect and the effect of character complexities when recognized characters in the parafovea and periphery. Above results indicated that the size of visual span in different reading proficiency is determined by between-character crowding effect and the effect of character complexities together in the level of visual perception.
|Appears in Collections:||[認知與神經科學研究所 ] 博碩士論文|
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