近期的研究提出文化的概念不僅是多維的，也是動態的。儘管有這些研究結果，目前 的研究對於文化確切的概念化及量測仍然相當缺乏。本研究企圖研究兩種文化概念的 概念化及量測，亦即文化取向和涵化 (文化適應)。研究一探討兩種文化取向的外顯式 量測方法(自陳式量表 self-report scale 及情景量表 scenario scale) 之間的收斂效度，以及 該兩種外顯量測與一種內隱式量測(IC-IAT) 之間的收斂效度。本研究亦探討從IC-IAT 檢測出不同程度的個人主義者和集體主義者之大腦神經反應是否有顯著差異。研究二 探討各種涵化因素之間的關係，並且使用動態建構主義方法 調查外籍學生的文化取向 是否改變。雖然自陳式量表顯示參與者皆為集體主義者，但情景量表和IC-IAT 則指出 參與者在個人主義上的得分高於在集體主義上的得分。不幸的是，這種差異並沒有在 大腦的神經反應上顯示出來。在自陳式報告量表，情景量表和IC-IAT 的結果差異可用 二種模式解釋。逃避應對策略解釋了文化壓力適應，壓力感知，身體壓力症狀和謹慎 性之間的關係。然而，使用動態建構主義方法在國際學生的文化取向上沒有表示顯著的改變。;Recent findings suggest that cultural constructs are not only multidimensional but are also dynamic. Despite these findings, there is still scant attention being paid to updating our current apprehension and assessment of cultural concepts. This study sought to investigate the conceptualization and assessment of two cultural constructs, namely cultural orientation and acculturation. Using a multidimensional approach, study 1 examined the convergence validity first between two cultural orientation explicit measures (self-report and scenario scale) and then between those two explicit measures and an implicit measure (IC-IAT). We also investigated whether the differences in the level of endorsement of individualism and collectivism detected by the IC-IAT were reflected at the neural level. Study 2 examined the relationship among various acculturation factors and used the dynamic constructivist approach to investigate whether the cultural orientation of Sojourners changes as a function of the host or heritage culture icons priming. While the self-report scale showed that participants were collectivists, the scenario scale and IC-IAT reflected that the participants endorsed more individualist values than collectivist values. Unfortunately, this difference was not reflected on the neural level. The discrepancies in self-reporting scales, scenario scales, and IC-IAT results can be explained using two models. Among the acculturation factors, demographic and personal characteristics were predictors of acculturation style and outcomes. Avoidant coping strategy explained the relationship between cultural adaptation stress, perceived stress, physical stress symptoms and conscientiousness. However, changes in cultural orientation of Sojourners as a function of the host or heritage culture icons priming were not significantly different. Our results contribute to literature by extending the scope of the current research to include understudied population.