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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ncu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/79629


    Title: 以行為及事件相關腦電位實驗探討組織化歷程 對測驗促進後續學習效應的影響;The organizational processing in test-potentiated learning: Behavioral and ERP studies.
    Authors: 王忻怡;Wang, Sin-Yi
    Contributors: 認知與神經科學研究所
    Keywords: 測驗促進後續學習效應;組織化歷程;隨後記憶效果;事件相關腦電位;test-potentiated learning;organizational processing;subsequent memory effect;event-related potentials
    Date: 2019-01-25
    Issue Date: 2019-04-02 15:08:41 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 國立中央大學
    Abstract: 本研究探討測驗過程中涉及的組織化歷程是否為「測驗促進後續學習效應」的機制,亦即測驗的記憶提取過程中對材料組織、架構處理的歷程,是否即為測驗提升後續學習的成效進而對於記憶表現有所助益的原因。研究中的三個實驗藉由呈現不同組織程度的實驗材料,以操弄受試者所涉入的組織化歷程,達到探討此假設的目的。實驗一中受試者學習「無關字詞」以及「隨機排列的類別字詞」,結果發現「重複測驗和重複學習」組別的表現顯著高於其他組別的表現,展現了測驗促進後續學習的效應。然而學習「無關字詞」的受試者以及「隨機排列的類別字詞」的受試者所展現出的測驗促進後續學習效果並無顯著差異,顯現受試者於提取此兩種字詞時可能依然涉入了組織化歷程,進而提升了後續學習的成效。實驗二呈現「依序排列的類別字詞」作為實驗材料,且同類別的字詞使用相同顏色呈現,然而於此情形下,「重複測驗和重複學習」組別的受試者的表現依然顯著高於其他組別。另外,計算受試者對於字詞組織程度的聚類比率分數後發現,接受了重複測驗後的兩組受試者,於最終測驗的聚類比率分數皆顯著高於重複測驗時的聚類比率分數。此結果意味著受試者接受重複測驗後對字詞的組織程度皆會提高,然而只有接受「重複測驗和重複學習」的受試者的整體表現有顯著的提升。實驗三採用與實驗一、二相似的實驗設計及材料,並記錄受試者於初次學習階段以及重複學習階段的腦波。結果發現,重複學習階段的隨後記憶效果展現在前額區、額葉與頂葉的頭皮區域,而展現於頂葉的隨後記憶效果在時序及位置上的分布類似於左側頂葉效果。進一步分析後發現前額區的隨後記憶效果只展現於重複測驗後的重複學習階段,而額葉與頂葉的隨後記憶效果與重複測驗變項間的交互作用也僅展現於重複測驗後的重複學習階段。此結果表示接受重複測驗的確影響了後續學習階段的材料登錄處理歷程,且此影響可能來自於重複學習階段涉入了先前回憶經驗的提取,以及涉及了對材料更深的登錄歷程。綜合來說,本研究認為組織化歷程應不是測驗可提升後續學習成效的主因,而測驗促進後續學習效應可能是由於受試者在重複學習階段涉及了以下的歷程:提取出重複測驗時如何回憶字詞的經驗、細節;涉入了更深的材料登錄歷程,不論受試者是關注於各個字詞的特徵或關注於字詞彼此間的關係。;This study investigated the organizational processing in test-potentiated learning: why testing benefits retention by potentiating subsequent learning or encoding. To examine whether the test-potentiated learning effect comes from the organizational processing of the materials after test, the types of materials were manipulated among the experiments. Experiment 1 tested this hypothesis by employing unrelated words & randomly categorized words as the study materials. The results showed higher recall rates for the groups that received repeated testing before restudy than for other groups. However, the test-potentiated learning effect did not show the different degrees between unrelated words condition and categorized words condition. These results indicated that the participants might still involve organizational processing when learned randomly categorized words. The categorized words were presented by category in different colors in Experiment 2. However, the recall rates of the group who received repeated testing and repeated studying were still significantly better than other groups. Also, The Adjusted Ratio of Clustering scores of the two groups who have received repeated testing were significantly higher in the final test compare to the repeated test. The results indicated that participants will show stronger organization as long as they receive repeated testing. But stronger organization does not always lead to test-potentiated learning effect. Experiment 3 employed a similar procedure of Experiment 1 & 2, during which ERPs were recorded at the initial/final study. The prefrontal subsequent memory effect(SME) was only found in the final study phase after repeated testing, reflecting that deep processing may involve in the encoding. The frontal & parietal SME was found in both the initial & final study phase, but significant interaction between condition (received testing or not) and SME was only observed in the final study phase after repeated testing, revealing that repeated testing indeed affect subsequent learning. Also, additional semantic processing might be involve in subsequent encoding. In summary, our behavioral results replicated test-potentiated learning effect but do not support the hypothesis that testing potentiate subsequent learning comes from the organizational processing. Neural physiological results suggest that after repeated testing, additional deep processing might involve in subsequent encoding.
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