本論文的主要目的是希望能藉由製程條件的改善與元件結構的改良提昇大面積矽偵測器的特性。為了降低漏電流及提高崩潰電壓，本論文探討偵測器的背面製程對元件特性的影響，並且證實利用磷摻雜的多晶矽外質去疵技術可以減少元件內部的缺陷，使元件特性獲得明顯的改善。 另外，在元件結構方面也藉由模擬軟體與實驗測試鍵(test-key)結果的協助，獲得最佳的相關元件構造參數，這些參數包括合適的氧化層厚度、接面深度、正面電極延伸長度及防護圈的配置等等。 In order to obtain a large-area silicon detector with good performances, such as low leakage current, high breakdown voltage and high reliability, the process improvement and structure design for a large-area silicon strip detector had been studied in this thesis. Firstly, an overview including fundamental considerations, operation principles, and basic processing has been given, and accordingly the required structure and performance of the detector were summarized. Then a lot of methods to reduce leakage current and furthermore increase breakdown voltage of the device by means of optimized structure and improved processing were presented. With the measured results of test-keys, the simulated device structure had been verified to have the good performances. A single-sided silicon strip detector with area of 1.12 cm2 and having an average leakage current reduced from 410 down to about 210 nA per diode strip after employing a backside phosphor-doped polysilicon gettering process at 985 ℃ had been obtained. So, it is possible to minimize the device leakage current with the well-developed gettering process. The experimental results of test-keys not only verified the simulation data but also provided the guidelines to obtain an optimum device structure with specified length of field-plate, spacing between two strips, and lateral radius of curvature of the strip corners.