Eby, Butts, and Lockwood (2003)以認知內部市場價值、認知外部市場價值、職涯滿意度三變數為無疆界職涯成功之指標，並透過knowing why、knowing how、knowing whom等自變項探討對三個無疆界職涯成功指標之關聯性，研究結果發現三個自變項分別對三個依變項都有顯著之正向解釋力。然而本研究透過文獻回顧，發現認知外部市場價值與職涯滿意度之間可能有負向關係，若此假設成立，則Eby et al. (2003)的模型可能有部分瑕疵，即若knowing why、knowing how、knowing whom對於認知外部市場價值和職涯滿意度都有顯著正向關係，為何認知外部市場價值卻會負向影響職涯滿意度?此疑問在Eby et al. (2003)的研究中沒有進一步的釐清和討論。
本研究認為認知市場價值與職涯滿意度不適合放在同一層次，因此將職涯滿意度移至認知市場價值之後，即將模型改為knowing why、knowing how、knowing whom為自變項，認知內、外部市場價值為中介變項，職涯滿意度為依變項。本研究回收之有效主管部屬配對樣本為217份並以SEM進行分析，研究發現認知外部市場價值的確與職涯滿意度之間有顯著之負向關係，而認知內部市場價值與職涯滿意度之間有顯著之正向關係。挑戰性工作經驗(knowing why)會透過認知內、外部市場價值，對職涯滿意度產生解釋力且主效果依舊存在，顯示為部分中介效果；學習發展(knowing how)僅透過認知內部市場價值，對職涯滿意度產生解釋力且主效果消失，為完全中介效果；人際關係(knowing whom)原主效果即不顯著，故亦沒有中介效果產生。
;Employees start to develop their career by themselves using basics of economic factors and developing their own capacities because they suffer from pressure of salary freeze and layoff in recent years.
Eby, Butts, and Lockwood (2003) suggested that perceived internal marketability, perceived external marketability and career satisfaction are three indicators of boundaryless career success. They explored the relationship between independent variables (knowing why, knowing how, knowing whom) and dependent variables (perceived internal marketability, perceived external marketability, career satisfaction). They also found significant positive relationship between three independent variables and three dependent variables. However, this study indicated that there may be a negative relationship between perceived external marketability and career satisfaction through literature review. If the hypothesis is correct, there may be some flaws in Eby, Butts, and Lockwood’s model. In other words, if knowing why, knowing how, knowing whom have positive relationship with perceived external marketability and career satisfaction, why perceived external marketability affects to career success negatively? This doubt has not been discussed in their study.
This study suggests that perceived marketability and career satisfaction do not fit on the same level. We used knowing why, knowing how, knowing whom as independent variables, perceived internal marketability and perceived external marketability as intervening variables, and career satisfaction as the dependent variable. This study conducted 217 samples to analysis by SEM and found that there was truly a negative relationship between perceived external marketability and career satisfaction, and a positive relationship between perceived internal marketability and career satisfaction. We also found that challenging job experiences (knowing why) affects career satisfaction through perceived internal and external marketability, and the main effect still exists. Learning and development (knowing how) affects career satisfaction through perceived internal marketability, but the main effect disappears. There is no relationship between Relationships (knowing whom) and career satisfaction.