近年來，台灣人口步入老年化和少子化，促使台灣勞動供給減少。相反的女性教 育程度普遍提升和服務業的快速成長，使得女性投入勞動市場比例升高。但根據主計處2013 年婦女婚育就業調查報告中指出，仍有將近五成的婦女曾因婚育而離職，在離職後更有高達六成的比例從此退出勞動市場，而離職的原因大多為需在家照顧學齡前兒童。因此本研究的目的在探討影響台灣已婚婦女於生育後參與勞動市場及未參與勞動市場之因素。 本研究採用次級資料：2013 年台灣行政院主計處「婦女婚育與就業調查」報告為樣本，透過邏輯斯回歸分析發現婦女之教育程度和初婚年齡對生育後婦女的勞動參與呈現正向顯著影響，而婚前工作職業性質、婦女初育間隔和六歲以下的幼兒數，則對生育後婦女的勞動參與呈現負向顯著影響。但本研究亦發現近年來家中有學齡前兒童的台灣婦女其教育程度越高，生育後的勞參率則有下降之趨勢；婚前職業如為服務與文書性質且教育程度為大專以上的婦女，生育後未參與勞動市場的比例較高。故政府在制定提升婦女生育後勞動參與之政策時，應對「高學歷，低就業」的現況進行探究與改善，並廣設公共化托育中心和補助企業實行友善的托育機制，才可使婦女不因照顧幼兒離開職場，此亦可提升中高齡婦女的就業率，達到「高生育和高就業」的理想境界。;In recent years, the aging population and the declining birth rate in Taiwan lead to insufficient workforce supply. In contrast, number of women with general higher education level rise and the rapid growth of service industry result in increasing rate of women entering labor market. According to report on women’s marriage, fertility and employment in 2013, by Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, nearly fifty percent of women have left labor market for marriage and fertility and even sixty percent of women left labor market perpetually. The reason is that women need to take care of preschool children at home. This study attempts to investigate and discuss on the factor of women′s labor force participation after childbirth. By using the secondary data and logistic regression analysis, we found that women’s education level and age at first marriage have significant and positive impact on women′s labor force participation after childbirth. However, types of work before marriage, the period between after marriage and before childbirth, the number of preschool children have significant and negative impact. We also found that women’s labor participation rate of after delivery is declining if they have preschool children at home as well as with higher education level. Women have types of work before marriage such as attendant and administration staff and with college degree show decreasing labor participation rate after delivery too.